Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access
Total views : 176

Green Spaces in Bengaluru: Quantification through Geospatial Techniques

Affiliations

  • Energy and Wetlands Research Group, Center for Ecological Sciences [CES], Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  • RCGSIDM, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, 721 302, India

Abstract


Green spaces in the urban landscape include public and private lands (parks, streets, backyards) consisting of trees, shrubs and, herbs, etc. COP21- recently concluded United Nations Climate conference at Paris acknowledges the need to limit warming towell below 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industrial levels and the need to try to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C through carbon neutrality and de-carbonisation mechanisms to avoid the worst climate impacts. World Health Organization stipulates minimum green space of 9.5 m2/person considering the services (oxygen, moderation of micro climate) and goods in the urban environment. Estimates indicate that about 6 kg of carbon is sequestered by a tree annually. Per capita respiratory carbon ranges from 192 to 328 kg/year depending on physiology of humans (525-900 gms/day/person depending on the age and physiology). Land use analysis show that the spatial extent of tree vegetation in Bangalore is 100.02 km2.(14.08%) and total number of trees in Bangalore is about 14,78,412 trees. Computation of trees per person show that Bangalore has one tree for every 7 persons, which highlights of crossing the threshold of urbanization. Overall improvements in human well-being in urban areas necessitate at least 33% green space that ensures at least 1.15 trees/person.

Keywords

Bengaluru, Bangalore, Trees, Tree Density, Vegetation Density, Trees per Person.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 2)

References


  • Armson D., Stringer P. and Ennos A.R. (2013). The effect of street trees and amenity grass on urban surface water runoff in Manchester, UK. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12: 282–286.
  • Bharath H.A., Sreekantha S., Durgappa D.S. and Ramachandra T.V. (2012). Spatial patterns of urbanization in an emerging Tier II City, Mysore, Proceedings of Samanway 2012, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, 03-04 March.
  • Bharath S., Bharath H.A., Durgappa D.S. and Ramachandra T.V. (2012). Landscape Dynamics through Spatial Metrics. Proceedings of 14th Annual international conference and exhibition on Geospatial Information Technology and Applications, India Geospatial Forum, 7-9 February 2012, Gurgaon, India.
  • Bhuvan available at http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in, last accessed 17th July 2016.
  • Brack C.L. (2002). Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration by an urban forest, Environmental Pollution, 116: 195–200.
  • Census India. (1991, 2001, 2011), available at http://censusindia.gov.in, Last accessed 17th July 2016.
  • Champion H.G. and Seth S.K. (1968). A revised survey of forest types of India. Government of India, New Delhi.
  • Chaturvedi A., Kamble R., Patil N.G. and Chaturvedi A. (2013). City–forest relationship in Nagpur: One of the greenest cities of India. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12: 79-87.
  • Dwivedi P., Rathore C.S. and Dubey Y. (2009). Ecological bene?ts of urban forestry: The case of Kerwa Forest Area (KFA), Bhopal, India. Applied Geography, 29:194–200.
  • Escobedo F.J., Kroeger T. and Wagner J.E. (2011). Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing eco system services and disservices. Environmental Pollution, 159: 2078-2087.
  • Gairola S.C. (2013). Urban Greening regulations in India: Status and future approaches. Indian Forester, 139(5): 391-398.
  • GhauriB., Lodhi A.and Mansha M.(2007).Development of baseline (airquality) data in Pakistan. Environment Monitoring Assessment,127:237–252.
  • Ghose M. K., Paul R. and Banerjee R.K. (2005). Assessment of The Status of Urban Air Pollution and Its Impact On Human Health In The City Of Kolkata, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 108: 151–167.
  • Google earth, available at http://earth.google.com.
  • GRASS available at: http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/grass.
  • Harris T. B. and Manning W.J. (2010). Nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels in urban tree canopies. Environmental Pollution, 158(7): 2384-2386.
  • Issar T.P. (1998). The City Beautiful, Bangalore, Urban Arts Commission, Bombay. 60.
  • Iyer M.H., Nagendra M.B., and Rajani (2012). Using satellite imagery and historical maps to study the original contours of Lalbagh Botanical Garden. Current Science, 102: 507–509.
  • Kamath S. (1990). Places of Interest, Karnataka State Gazetteer: Bangalore District. Chapter 19. Government of Karnataka, Bangalore.
  • Karnataka State, Bangalore District Gazetteer, (1981), Bangalore Government Press.
  • Khan F.I. and Abbasi S.A. (2000). Attenuation of Gaseous Pollutants by Greenbelts. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 64: 457–475.
  • Lillesand T.M., Kiefer R.W. and Chipman J.W. (2004). Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 5th Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
  • McPherson E.G., Rowntree A.R. and Wagar J.A. (1994). Energy-ef?cient landscapes. In: Bradley, G. (Ed.), Urban Forest Landscapes—Integrating Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives. University of Washington Press, Seattle/London.
  • McPherson E.G., Simpson J.R., Xiao Q. and Wu C. (2011). Million trees Los Angeles canopy cover and bene?t assessment. Landscape and Urban Planning, 99: 40–50.
  • McPherson E.G., Xiao, Q. and Aguaron, E. (2013). A new approach to quantify and map carbon stored, sequestered and emissions avoided by urban forests. Landscape and Urban Planning, 120: 70– 84.
  • NMC, (2012). (Nagpur Muncipal Corporation) available at http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-03-15/nagpur/ 31196698_1_secondgreenestcity-laxmi-nagar-zone-mass-tree-plantation, Nagpur Municipal Corporation,Times of India,Nagpur,Mar15,2012.
  • Negi S. S.and Gupta M. K.(2012). Status of sequestrated organic carbon in the soils under different vegetation covers. Indian Forester,139(7):571-575.
  • Nowak D.J. and Crane D.E. (2002). Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution, 116: 381–389.
  • Puri G.S, MehrHomji V.M., Gupta R.K. and Puri S. (1983). Forest Ecology. Oxford and IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi, India.
  • Ramachandra T.V., Bharath H.A. and Durgappa D.S. (2012a). Insights to urban dynamics through landscape spatial pattern analysis, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 18: 329-343.
  • Ramachandra T.V., Bharath H.A. and Vinay S. (2013a), Comprehension of temporal land use dynamics in urbanising landscape, Proceedings of National Remote Sensing Centre, ISRO, Balanagar, Hyderabad., User Interaction Meet - 2013, Feb. 21-22.
  • RamachandraT.V.,Bharath H. A.and Vinay S. (2013b). Land use Land Cover Dynamics in a Rapidly Urbanizing Landscape, SCIT Journal,13(1):1-13.
  • Ramachandra T.V. and Bharath H.A., (2012), Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Landscape Dynamics in Shimoga, Tier II City, Karnataka State, India. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2(9): 563 – 576.
  • Ramachandra T.V., Bharath H.A. and Sreekantha S. (2012b). Spatial Metrics based Landscape Structure and Dynamics Assessment for an emerging Indian Megalopolis, Inter. J. Advanced Research in Artificial Intelligence, 1(1): 48 – 57.
  • Ramachandra T.V. and Kumar U. (2009). Land surface temperature with land cover dynamics: multi-resolution, spatio-temporal data analysis of greater Bangalore. Inter. J. Geoinformatics, 5 (3): 43–53.
  • Ramachandra T.V. and Kumar U. (2010). Greater Bangalore: emerging urban heat, island. GIS Development, 14(1): 86-104.
  • Ramachandra T.V. and Mujumdar P.P. (2006). Urban Floods: Case Study of Bangalore. Disaster and Development, 1(2): 1-22.
  • Ramachandra T.V., Vishnu B., Bharath H.A., Bharath S. and Kumar U. (2011). Exposition of Urban Structure and Dynamics through Gradient Landscape Metrics for Sustainable Management of Greater Bangalore. FIIB Business Review, 1(1): 1-18.
  • Ramaswamy S.V. and Razi B.A. (1973). Flora of Bangalore District, Bangalore Press.
  • Schneider S.H. (1989). The changing climate. Scientific American, 120:70-79.
  • Secon (2010). Urban trees in Bangalore City: Pilot Study on the Role of Trees in Mitigating Air Pollution and the Heat island effect 2006-2007. Secon Pvt. Ltd.
  • Simpson J. R.(1998). Urban forestimpacts on regional cooling and heating energy use: Sacramento county case study. J. Arboriculture,24(4):201-214.
  • Singh H.S. (2013). Tree density and canopy cover in the urban areas in Gujarat, India. Current Science, 104(10):1294 – 1299 Sudha P. and Ravindranath N.H. (2000). A study of Bangalore urban forest. Landscape and Urban Planning. 47: 47-63.
  • Sudhira H.S., Ramachandra T.V. and Bala Subramanya M.H. (2007). City Profile: Bangalore. Cities, 24 (5): 379–39
  • Sung C.Y. (2013). Mitigating surface urban heat island by a tree protection policy: A case study of The Woodland, Texas, USA. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12: 474–480.
  • Sung C.Y. and Li M.H. (2010). The effect of urbanization on stream hydrology in hill slope watersheds in central Texas. Hydrological Processes, 24: 3706 – 3717.
  • Thomas S.C., Malczewski G. and Saprunoff M. (2007). Assessing the potential of native tree species for carbon sequestration forestry in Northeast China. J. Envir. Management, 85: 663 – 671.
  • Trenberth and Kevin E. (2007). Observation and Atmospheric Climate Change. IPCC Forth Assessment Report. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY. USA. Cambridge University Press. P 244.
  • Vailshery L.S., Jaganmohan M. and Nagendra H. (2013). Effect of street trees on microclimate and air pollution in a tropical city. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12: 408–415.
  • Vinay S., Bharath H.A. and Ramachandra T.V. (2012). Spatio-temporal dynamics of Raichur city, proceedings of the symposium LAKE 2012, November 2012, Indian institute of Science, Bangalore. available at: http://wgbis.ces.iisc.ernet.in/energy/lake2012/fullpaper/vinay_fullpaper.pdf
  • Vos P.E.J.,Vankerkom B.M.J. and Janssen S.(2013).Improving local air quality in cities:Totreeornotto tree?Environmental Pollution,183:113-122.
  • Yang J., McBride J., Zhou J. and Sun Z. (2005). The urban forest in Beijing and its role in air pollution reduction, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 3: 65–78.
  • Yousif T.A. and Tahir H.M.M. (2013). Modeling the Effect of Urban Trees on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration in Khartoum State. J. Forest Products & Industries, 2(4): 37-42.
  • Zannin T.H.P., Ferreira A.M.C. and Szeremetta B. (2006). Evaluation of Noise Pollution in Urban Parks. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 118: 423–433.
  • Zhang Z., LV Z. and Pan H. (2013). Cooling and humidifying effect of plant communities in subtropical urban parks. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12: 323–329.
  • Zhou W., Huang G. and Cadenasso M.L. (2011). Does spatial con?guration matter? Understanding the effects of land cover pattern on land surface temperature in urban landscapes. Landscape and Urban Planning, 102: 54–63.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.