Total views : 531
Subscription or Fee Access
Identifying Conservation Priority Sites for Saraca Asoca: An Important Medicinal Plant Using Ecological Niche Models
Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde belonging to family Caesalpiniaceae has been used to manage gynecological disorders and infections besides being used for treating bacterial infections, skin problems, worm infestations, cardiac and circulatory problems. Almost all parts of the plant are considered therapeutically valuable. The plant has been extensively mentioned in several folklores besides ayurvedic literature. This has lead to the availability of several commercial S. asoca formulations recommended for different ailments. Owing to a large number of herbal formulations, the domestic demand for Ashoka bark in India was reported to be more than 15,000 metric tonnes. This increased demand has led to extensive and indiscriminate extraction of S. asoca resources in several parts of country. In this paper, using distribution records of S. asoca in India, the hotspots of distribution of S. asoca have been identified using Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) tools. ENMs use species occurrence records along with climatic and other environmental variables to generate species distribution maps. These distribution maps are used to identify suitable habitats for cultivation of species to meet the demand of herbal industry. The distribution of S. asoca for future climate scenarios has also been modelled. Predicting how species distribution will change in the wake of future global climate change, is important to develop effective conservation strategies.
Saraca asoca, Ecological Niche Models, Maxent, Climate Change, Conservation.
- Araujo and Williams (2000). Selecting areas for species persistence using occurrence data. Biological Conservation, 96: 331-345.
- Begum S.N., Ravikumar K. and Ved D.K. (2014). 'Asoka' – an important medicinal plant, its market scenario and conservation measures in India. Current Science, 107: 26–28.
- Bernie D. (2010). Temperature implications from the IPCC 5th assessment Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP). Work stream 2, Report 11 of the AVOID programme (AV/WS2/D1/R11).
- Chaturvedi R.K., Gopalakrishnan R., Jayaram M., Bala G., Joshi N.V., Sukumar R. and Ravindranath N.H. (2010). Impact of climate on Indian forests: a dynamic vegetation modelling approach. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 16: 119–142.
- Elith J., Graham C.H., Anderson R.P., Dudík M. and Ferrier S., (2006). Novel methods improve prediction of species distributions from occurrence data. Ecography, 29: 129–151.
- Elith J., Phillips S.J., Hastie T., Dudík M., Chee Y.E., Yates C.J. (2011). A statistical explanation of MaxEnt for ecologists. Diversity and Distributions, 17: 43–57.
- Ganeshaiah K.N. and Uma Shaanker R. (2003). SasyaSahyadri.A Database on Plants of the Western Ghats. UAS, GKVK, Bangalore.
- Ghosh S., Majumder M., Majumder S., Ganguly N.K. and Chatterjee B.P. (1999). Saracin: a lectin from Saraca indica seed integument induces apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 371: 163–168.
- Godown M.E and Peterson A.T. (2000). Preliminary distributional analysis of U.S endangered bird species. Biodiversity and Conservation, 9: 1313-1322.
- Gopalakrishnan R., Jayaraman M., Bala G. and Ravindranath N.H. (2011). Climate change and Indian forests. Current Science,101: 348–355.
- Guisan A. and Zimmerman N.E. (2000). Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135: 147-186.
- Kearney M. and Porter W. (2009). Mechanistic niche modeling: combining physiological and spatial data to predict species ranges. Ecology Letters,12: 334–350.
- Krishna Kumar K., Patwardhan S.K., Kulkarni A., Kamala K., Rao K.K. and Jones R. (2011). Simulated projections for summer monsoon climate over India by a high- resolution regional climate model (PRECIS). Current Science,101: 312–326.
- Maruthappan V. and Sakthi Shree K. (2010). Antiulcer activity of aqueous suspension of Saraca indica flower against gastric ulcers in albino rats. J. Pharmaceutical Research, 3(1): 17.
- Mathew N., Anitha M.G., Bala S.L., Sivakumar S.M., Narmadha R. and Kalyanasundaram M. (2009). Larvicidal activity of Saraca indica, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, and Clitoria ternatea extracts against three mosquito vector species. Parasitology Research, 104: 1017–1025.
- Moisen G.G. and Frescino T.S. (2002). Comparing five modelling techniques for predicting forest characteristics. Ecological Modelling,157: 209–225.
- Moss R.H., Edmonds J.A., Hibbard K.A., Manning M.R., Rose S.K. and Van Vuuren D.P. (2010). The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature, 463: 747–756.
- Nayak S., Sahoo A.M., Chakraborti C.K. and Haque M.N. (2011). Antibacterial activity study of Saraca indica leaves. Inter. J. Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 3: 160–163.
- Peterson A.T. (2003). Predicting the geography of species' invasions via ecological niche modeling. Quarterly Review of Biology, 78: 419–433.
- Peterson A.T. and Vieglais D.A. (2001). Predicting species invasions using ecological niche modeling: new approaches from bioinformatics attack a pressing problem. Bioscience, 51: 363–371.
- Peterson A.T., Martinez-Meyer E. and Gonzalez-Salazar C. (2004). Reconstructing the pleistocene geography of the Aphelocoma jays (Corvidae). Biodiversity Research, 10: 237-246.
- Peterson A.T., Papes M. and Soberón J. (2008). Rethinking receiver operating characteristic analysis applications in ecological niche modelling. Ecological Modelling, 213: 63–72.
- Phillips S.J., Anderson R.P. and Schapire R.E. (2006). Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190: 231–259.
- Pikesley S.K., Broderick A.C., Cejudo D., Coyne M.S., Godfrey M.H., Godley B.J., Lopez P., López-Jurado L.F., Elsy Merino S., Varo-Cruz N., Witt M.J. and Hawkes L.A. (2015). Modelling the niche for a marine vertebrate: a case study incorporating behavioural plasticity, proximate threats and climate change. Ecography, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecog.01245.
- Pradhan P., Joseph L., Gupta V., Chulet R., Arya H., Verma R. and Bajpai A. (2009). Saraca asoca (Ashoka): a review. J. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research,1:62–71.
- Sainath R.S., Prathiba J. and Malathi R. (2009). Antimicrobial properties of the stem bark of Saraca indica (Caesalpiniaceae). European Review of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 13:371-374.
- Singh S., Krishna T.A., Kamalra S., Kuriakose G.C., Valayil J.M. and Jayabaskaran C. (2015). Phytomedicinal importance of Saraca asoca (Ashoka): an exciting past,an emerging present and a promising future. Current Science, 109(10):1790.
- Shukla R., Chakravarty M. and Gautam M.P. (2008). Indigenous medicine used for treatment of gynaecological disorders by tribal of Chhattisgarh. Indian J. Medicinal Plant Research, 2: 356–360.
- Swets J.A. (1988). Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science, 240: 1285–1293.
- Varaprasad N., Suresh A. and Suresh V. (2011). Anti pyretic activity of methanolic extract of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde leaves. Inter. J. of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 3: 202-207.
- Verma A., Jana G.K., Chakraborty R., Sen S., Sachan S. and Mishra A. (2010). Analgesic activity of various leaf extracts of Saraca indica Linn. Der Pharm. Let, 2: 352–357.
- Ved D.K. and Goraya G.S. (2007). Demand and supply of medicinal plants in India. NMPB, New Delhi and FRLHT, Bangalore, India.
- Walther G.R., Post E., Convey P., Menzel A., Parmesank C., Beebee T.J.C., Fromentin J.M., Guldbergs O.H. and Bairlein F. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature, 416: 389–395.
- Warren D.L., Glor R.E. and Turelli M. (2010). ENM Tools: a toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models. Ecography, 33: 607–611.
- Zaniewski A.E., Lehmann A. and Overton J.M. (2002). Predicting species distribution using presence-only data: a case study of native New Zealand ferns. Ecological Modelling, 157: 261-280.
- There are currently no refbacks.