Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access
Total views : 289

Fuelwood and Fodder Consumption Pattern an Altitudinal Gradient (1000 - 1200 M) in Mountain Villages of Almora District

Affiliations

  • The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India
  • Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, Kumaun University, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

Abstract


The rural population of the Kumaun Himalaya using fodder and fuelwood from their own sources as well as forest also for time immortal. Forest is the main sources of these requirements. The aim of this paper to analyze the fodder consumption pattern, availability and energy economics for fuel and fodder. The average consumption of fodder was 7.7 kg. for green and 2.07 kg dry per day. The main source for fodder was agricultural residue and the human energy consumed 0.14MJ/H/Day for the collection of reported fodder of animals. The average fuel consumption was 3.95 Kg./Day/Family and there was a deficit of 24.7 MT/Year. Maximum energy (16.8MJ) was for firewood collection in winters.

Keywords

Energy, Fuel, Fodder, Deficit.

Full Text:

 |  (PDF views: 0)

References


  • Anon. (1982). What is agroforestry? Agroforestry. Systems, 1:7 -12.
  • Arora N. and Porwal M.C. (2002). Geo – special analysis of lesser Himalayan landscape for characterizing resource utilization pattern (Nainital Lake Region). Natural Resource Management, 1: 1-9.
  • Atul, Punam and Khosla P.K. (1994). Himachal Himalayan agroecosystem status – a case study. Biol. Agri. Horti., 10: 271-286.
  • Bhatt B.P., Negi, A.K., and Todaria N.P. (1994). Fuelwood consumption pattern at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya. Energy, 19 (4): 465-468.
  • Bhatt B.P. and Chauhan D.S. (2003). Structure and functioning of traditional hill agro ecosystems: a case study from Garhwal Himalaya In: Approaches for Increasing Agricultural Productivity in Hill and Mountain Ecosystem, (Bhatt, B.P; Bujarbaruah, K.M.; Sharma, Y.P. and Patiram (eds.), pp. 51-63, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam, Meghalaya.
  • Chauhan D.S., Bhatt B.P., Negi A.K., and Todaria N.P. (2001). Forest and Forestry: Status, constraints and Scope. In: Garhwal Himalaya: Nature, Culture & Society(Kandari, O.P. and Gusain eds), pp. 95 -124. Published by Transmedia, Media House, Srinagar, Garhwal, Uttaranchal.
  • Chaturvedi A.N. and Khanna L.S. (2000). Forest Mensuration and Biometry. Third edition, Khanna Bandh, Dehradun, pp.364.
  • Dadhwal K.S., Narain P. and Dhyani S.K. (1989). Agroforestry systems in the Garhwal Himalays of India. Agroforetry Systems, 7:213-225.
  • Deb Roy R. (1994). Common agroforestry systems and their management for optimising production, In: Agroorestry Systems for Degraded Lands(Singh, P, Pathak, P. S. And Roy, M.M. eds.),Vol. I, pp. 379 -387, Oxford and IBH, New Delhi.
  • Gaur R.D. (1984). Development through bee farming in the Garhwal Himalaya. JOHSARD, 7and 8: 51-59.
  • Ghildiyal U.C., (1980). Discussion on forests, resource ecology and management. JOHSARD, 4:23 -24.
  • Gopalan C., Ramasastri B.V., and Balasubramanian S.C. (1978). Nutritive value of Indian Foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hydrabad, India.
  • Gupta R.K. (1979). Energy forests in farm and community lands. Indian Farming, 26: 84-86.
  • Hall D.O., Barnard G.W. and Moss P.A. (1982). Biomass for energy in Developing Countries. Oxford, Pergamon Press.
  • Hedge M.S. (1984). Fuel problem in villages: challenges and opportunities. Bulletin of Science, 8:8-13.
  • Lundgreen B. and Nair P.K.R. (1985). Agroforestry for soil conservation. In: Soil Erosion and Conservation(El – Swaiufy, S. A. Moldenhauer, W. C., and Lo, A. eds), pp. 703-711. Soil Conservation Society of America, Nokey, Lowa.
  • Mahat T.B.S., Grigffin D.N. and Shephered K.P. (1987). Human impact on some forest of the middle hills of Nepal. Part 4: A detailed study in Southeast Sindhu Palachock and Northeast kabhere Palanchock. Mountain Research and Development, 7:114-134.
  • Maikhuri R.K., Nautiyal S., Rao K.S. and Sexena K.G. (1998). Traditional crop diversity in the buffer zone village of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve: In: Biosphere Reserve and Management in India (Maikhuri, R.K., Rao, R.S. and Rai, R.K. eds)., HIMVIKAS, Publication., No. 2: pp 226, Ajanta Publication, Nainital, Uttaranchal.
  • Maikhuri R.K., Rao, K.S. and Sexena K.G. 1996. Traditional crop diversity for sustainable development of central Himalayan agroecosystems. Inter. J. Sustainable Development and world Ecology, 3: 8-31.
  • Nautiyal S., Maikhuri R.K., Semwa R.L., Rao K.S. and Sexena K.G. (1998). Agroforestry systems in the rural landscape – A Case Study in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Agroforestry Systems, 41: 151-165.
  • Negi A.K. (1992). Studies on impact of local folk on forests of Tehri Garhwal: A Case Study. Ph. D. Thesis, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal, pp.263.
  • Negi A.K., Bhatt, B.P. and Todaria N.P. (1999). Local population impact on the forests and the local people in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. Mountain Research and Development, 17(2): 159-168.
  • Osei W.Y. (1993). Wood full and deforestation – answers for a sustainable environment. J. Environment Management, 37:51-62.
  • Palni L.M.S. Maikhuri R.K. and Rao K.S. (1998). Conservation of the Himalayan agroecosystems: Issues and priorities. Technical paper III In: Eco – Regional Cooperation for Biodiversity Conservation in the Himalaya. UNDP, pp. 253 -290, New York.
  • Pokhriyal T.C., Singh U. and Chaukiyal S.P. (1994). Effects of defolinization treatments on the growth parameters in Grewia optiva. Ann. For., 2(2) 147 -154.
  • Punam (1989). Agroforestry ecosystem dynamics in Himachal Himalayas. Ph.D Thesis, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India, pp.138.
  • Reddy A.K. (1981). An Indian village agricultural ecosystem case study of Ungra village. Part II. Dicussion. Biomass, 1:77-88.
  • Reynolds V. and Nautiyal B.P. (1987). Grazing and fodder collection in Garhwal, North India. Inter. J. Environmental Studies, 28: 267-289.
  • Semwal R.L., and Maikhuri R.K.(1996). Structure and function of traditional hill agroecosystem of Garhwal Himalaya. Bio. Agric.Hortic., 13.267-289.
  • Singh K.A. and Thomson F.B. (1995). Effect of lopping on water potentials, transpiration, regrowth, 14 c – photosynthetic distribution and biomass production in Alnus glutinosa. Tree Physiology., 15 (3): 197-202.
  • Singh P. and Upadhyaya S.D. (2001). Biological interaction in tropical grassland ecosystem. In: Structure and Function in Agroecosystem Design and Management(Shiyomi, M. and Koizumi, H. ed.), pp. 113-143. CRC Press, USA.
  • Sundriyal R.C., Rai S.C., Sharma E., and Rai Y.K. (1994). Hill agroforestry in south Sikkim, India. Agroforestry. Systems., 26: 215-235.
  • Thapa G.B., Sinclair F.L. and Walker D.H. (1995). Incorporation of indigenous knowledge and perspective in agroforestry development. Part 2: Case study on the impact of explicit representation of farmers knowledge. Agroforestry. Systems., 30:249-261.
  • Toky O.P., Kumar P., and Khosla P.K. (1989). Structure and function of traditional Agroforestry Systems in the western Himalaya. Biomass and productivity. Agroforestry. Systems, 9 (1):47-70.
  • Trivedy R.K., Goel P.K., and Trisal C.L. (1987). Practical Methods in Ecology and Environmental Science. Enviro media publications, Karad ( India), pp. 340.
  • Wijesinghe L.C.A., Des. (1984). A sample study of biomass fruit consumption in Sri Lanka households. Biomass, 5: 261-282.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.